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Basic Apache server configuration step by step

Basic Apache server configuration

Installing Apache
When you’re working with Apache, you need two packages. The first is httpd, which actually installs the Apache web server. The second is the mod_ssl package, which provides the ability to create secure websites.

How to Monitoring RAID Devices

Monitoring RAID Devices
The following commands are useful for monitoring RAID devices:
·        cat /proc/mdstat: Shows the status of the RAID devices and the status of any actions being performed on them such as adding a new member or rebuilding the array.
·        mdadm --query /dev/mdX: Displays basic data about the device such as size and number of spares such as:
/dev/md0: 9.77GiB raid1 3 devices, 1 spare.
Add the --detail option to display more data ( mdadm --query –detail /dev/mdX):

How to Adding and Failing RAID Partitions

To add a partition to a RAID device, execute the following as root after creating the partition of type Linux raid auto (fd in fdisk):
mdadm /dev/mdX -a <device list>
To add /dev/sda8 to the /dev/md0 RAID device created in the previous section:
mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda8
shows the output from cat /proc/mdstat. The /dev/sda8 partition is now a spare partition in the RAID array.

How to Create & Configure New Raid Partition

When creating partitions to use for the RAID device, make sure they are of type Linux raid auto. In fdisk, this is partition id fd. After creating the partitions for the RAID device, use the following syntax as the root user to create the RAID device:

mdadm --create /dev/mdX --level=<num> --raid-devices=<num> <device list>
The progress of the device creation can be monitored with the following command as root:

Understanding RAID Level

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) allows an administrator to form an array of several hard drives into one logical drive recognized as one drive by the operating system. It also spreads the data stored over the array of drives to decrease disk access time and accomplish data redundancy. The data redundancy can be used to recover data should one of the hard drives in the array crash.

There are two types of RAID: hardware RAID and software RAID. Hardware RAID is implemented through the disk controller for the system. Instructions for configuring hardware RAID differ from controller to controller, so refer to the manual for your disk controller for instructions. Software RAID is implemented through the operating system and does use some processor and memory resources, although some software RAID implementations can produce faster disk access times than hardware RAID.

How to Detecting Hardware in Linux

After the installation program probes for hardware and maps the IDs to the appropriate kernel module (if available), the kernel module information is written to the /etc/ modprobe.conf file so it can be used on subsequent boots.
But, what should you do if a device is not configured by the installation program? You can use tools to probe the hardware and discover information that can be used to manually configure the device. This section discusses two tools for this purpose: Kudzu and ddcprobe.

How to install Firefox in Linux

 Install Firefox in few easy steps
1.       Download
Download Firefox from for Linux Operating system.
2.       Extract
The downloaded file is a compressed .bz2 archive.
GUi Mode: To extract this  archive file, open the Downloads directory. Look for a file named firefox-xxxxx.tar.bz2, right-click on it and select "extract here".
Alternatively, you can extract the archive from the command line:

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